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 网易汽车6月2日报道 这两天很多人就算过不成儿童节,其实也比小朋友们还高兴,因为最近国家公布了新车购置税减半的措施——当然了,这个措施对于部分品牌比如丰田可以说是喜忧参半,因为他们有一大帮主力车型都享受不了这个大福利,这到底为啥呢?

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

首先我们还要重复一下减免购置税的政策条件,第一个是价格:在不含增值税的情况下,不高于30万元也就是官方指导价低于33.9万元;

第二个是排量:不大于2.0升(丰田这一项就不行了……);

第三个是车型:不多于9座的乘用车(中巴皮卡什么的不行)。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

■ 为啥混动要用2.5?

还得从丰田混动系统原理说起

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ECVT不能实现完全的解耦,发动机功率低了不行

高热效率的涡轮增压发动机依然难做

实际上国内对于汽车排量的控制历时已久,消费税就和排量息息相关。所以问题来了,为什么丰田混动非得用2.5排量的发动机呢?这就要从丰田混合动力系统的原理说起了。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

说到丰田的混合动力系统,很多人第一时间想到就是ECVT,这个所谓的电子无极变速箱其实有很多种结构(点击阅读:电子无级变速器ECVT解析)——而丰田采用的是一种叫动力分流式的结构,直白的说,就是电动机和发动机无时无刻的都得参与驱动,两个动力源互相协调,相互调节,实现高效的驱动。直观一点就是这样:

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

嗯,现款的ECVT内部是这样的:

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

从上面结构图也可以看出,右侧是发动机通过单向离合器输出动力到ECVT,这个单向离合器的作用是确保只能冲发动机输入到变速箱,而车辆不能反拖汽油机——同时更重要的是,在电动机和发电机都可以参与驱动的情况下,需要动力水平尤其是功率数值与之相当的发动机来共同组成混系统的动力源,才能确保动力的平衡输出——就好比说是三个人划一条船,左边本来一个人动手,结果又加了一个人,那肯定要把力气最大这位放在右边了,不然就要原地转圈圈了,翻船也未可知……

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

所以,我们看到目前丰田基于TNGA架构的新车型混动系统,其发动机与电机功率的水平大体上是这样的,多数情况下,发动机功率明显大于电机的功率:

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

即便是采用纯电驱动模式,现有的电机功率也足以支撑支驱动车辆,但由于动力电池本身容量较小,采用的是闪充闪放的设定,所以在整个使用工况下,汽油机依然不可避免的反复启机——如果发动机功率太小,不但驾驶体验不好,而且经济性也会大打折扣。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

可能有人要说了,那换一个小排量的涡轮增压发动机,把功率调高不就可以了吗?很多中国品牌的增程或者插混不就是这样做的吗?好的,问题来了,目前还没有一款合适的小排量涡轮增压发动机,能满足丰田对于混合动力系统中汽油机热效率的需求……

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

至于本田的混动,它的结构完全不一样,不具备发动机和电动机同时驱动车辆的能量流情况,所以也就不存在这个问题了,这也是它的中级车混动完全可以用2.0升自然吸气发动机,而紧凑级车用1.5排量就够了……

* 通用发动机系列也是降低成本的办法

同时,和燃油版共用同一系列的发动机,也可以减少成本。之前国产普锐斯单独搞一个发动机,搞得成本巨高的后果,丰田可不想再走老路了。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

就算是在排量小了都不好意思出门的北美市场,丰田也在汉兰达等车型上取消了原来上一代的3.5混动系统,取而代之的都是统一的2.5混动……不要忘了TNGA不只是安全性、效率、动态感受上的提升,压缩成本也是一把好手啊。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

■ 未来会有变化?

增大电机是王道,但架构短期内无法改变

新的涡轮增压发动机依然没有合适的

实际上增加电动机驱动的比例以及电动机加大功率,是目前油电混动系统发展的趋势之一。所以按照这个方向发展下去,如果丰田不改变现有混动系统的技术架构,可能中大排量的发动机依然不能少。而从丰田在稳定性上面的考量来说,在主力车型上改变这个架构的可能性微乎其微。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

至于新的涡轮增压发动机,目前丰田发布了2.4T的发动机,用来取代原来的3.5L V6发动机,将搭载于新一代雷克萨斯RX 350车型,而跟混动相关的,则是全新的组合——2.4T发动机结合6速自动变速箱、电机组成的全新架构混动系统,但是它与后电驱动桥组合成500h版本,350h依然是2.5汽油机为主体……

而对于行业政策角度,为何出台此次购置税减免,网易汽车也有自己的独家报道:

独家|揭秘“2.0升”+“30万”补贴门槛背后的考量(来源:网易汽车)
■ 还有哪些赶不上趟的?

除了丰田之外,这次没有赶上购置税优惠的还有一些车型,比如采用中等排量自然吸气发动机的日韩系车型,诸如马自达阿特兹、现代帕里斯帝等等,还有就是采用2.0T以上的涡轮增压发动机,主要是一些SUV,比如福特探险者、北京BJ40、坦克500等等。

购置税减半发福利 为啥丰田只能泪流满面?

编辑有话说:

可能有的网友觉得有点多余,买得起丰田汉兰达混动还在意这购置税么?确实对于30万元的级别,影响不那么大,但是威兰达RAV4这个级别呢?隔壁那个本田……而且市面上的选择余地越来越大,丰田也该做出改变了。

1416张高清大图|查看车型配置

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Would Fendi’s fall winter collection of bags be complete without a fur item? And what would be more suitable than this amazing fur version of the Peekaboo mini tote? This model has already become an iconic bag for the Italian house because of its vintage looking silver frame. Now it comes in an even more appealing version that keeps all the quality standards Fendi accustomed us with.
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Inside the bag, you will be surprised to find a zipped pocket in the middle and two other rather big compartments, thus enabling you to carry with you all your essential things during your busy day. A cute bag especially created for the winter season, Fendi Fox Fur Mini Peekaboo is the right choice for your wardrobe this year. Elegant, practical, comfortable and stylish, this bag model will never disappoint you. Moreover, it will turn into your most reliable friend and into your daily accessory. Fendi Fox Fur Mini Peekaboo is a bag you cannot separate from once you have put your hands on and a purchase decision that you will not regret.

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